"Old dogs" and new skills: how clinician characteristics relate to motivational interviewing skills before, during, and after training.

Carpenter, KM, Cheng WY, Smith JL, Brooks AC, Amrhein PC, Wain RM, Nunes EV. (2012). J Consult Clin Psychol, 560-73. 

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- [Telephone Coaching Delivery (TCS)], which provided immediate feedback during practice sessions, was most effective for increasing MI Spirit and reflective listening among clinicians with no graduate degree and stronger vocabulary performances. [Video Tape (AT)] supervision was more effective for increasing these skills among clinicians with a graduate degree. Further, TCS and AT were most likely to enhance MI Spirit among clinicians with low average to average verbal and abstract reasoning performances.